General Information:

Instructor: Katia Obraczka (katia "at" soe.ucsc.edu)

Office: E2 323

Lab: Internbetwork Research Group (i-NRG) E2 311 (http://inrg.cse.ucsc.edu)

Classroom: E2 506

Class times: T Th 1:30-3:05

Class Description:

This class covers various topics relevant to wireless networking and mobile computing. It focuses on communication protocols for wireless and mobile networks from medium-access control to end-to-end transport and applications. The course requires extensive reading (especially research literature) and in-class presentations, participation, and discussion. Programming proficiency is assumed since students will be required to complete a major class project.

Pre-requisites: CE 252A or equivalent.

Topics covered in the class include:

. Medium access control

. Unicast and multicast routing

. Wireless internetworking

. End-to-end protocols

. Others:

. Networking paradigms: Disruption-tolerant networking, Software-defined networking, etc.

. Mobility and location management

. Power and topology management

. Security

. Internet of Things


. In-class presentation: 20%

. Reading reports: 10%

. Project: 40% 

. Exam: 30%

Grades of C and below will be assigned to students who do not perform satisfactorily. Students should not assume that you can receive a passing grade simply because this is a graduate class.

Student Responsibilities:

Students enrolled in this class are agreeing to the following:

. ACADEMIC INTEGRITY: All work turned in as reports, project, and exam MUST be individual. If any work claimed by a student to be his/her own is found to be shared with other students, that will be considered a violation of academic integrity and will be handled accordingly. For more information on UCSC's academic integrity policies, visit http://www.ucsc.edu/academics/academic-integrity/index.html.

. Students are responsible for reading the papers that will be covered in a specific lecture BEFORE the lecture. All papers must be read in detail even though not all details will be covered in class. A reading report on the papers read need to be submitted before the class meeting in which the papers will be discussed.

. Students are also responsible for checking the class Web page frequently for updates, schedule changes, etc.

. The course pre-requisite is CMPE 252A or equivalent. You can talk to the instructor if you do not have the required background. If a student has not taken CMPE 252A (or equivalent), it is the student's responsibility to acquire the corresponding background material.

. As mentioned in the description of the course, students must be proficient (C, C++) programmers as a class term project will account for a considerable portion of the grade.

. Class attendance is mandatory. Because this is a graduate class, students are expected to participate actively in class, and that's hard to do if they do not attend class regularly. Attendance will not be recorded, but you cannot pass if you miss more than two classes. If you need to miss a class, please let the instructor know (in advance if possible).

. Much of the course material, including assignments and lecture notes, will be posted on the class Web page. However, students are responsible for all material covered in class, whether or not it appeared on the Web site.


No textbook is required. The book "Ad Hoc Wireless Networks: Architectures and Protocols" by C. Siva Ram Murthy and B.S. Manoj can be used as a reference.

Reading Reports:

Each student is expected to write one-page report that contains a brief summary of the papers to be read for that class. Summaries are due before the start of the class when the papers will be covered. Summaries are to be submitted as an e-mail attachment (plain text or pdf).

The summary of each paper should include brief answers to the following questions: (1) what is the problem the authors are trying to solve? (2) why is the problem interesting, relevant, and/or important? (3) what other approaches or solutions existed at the time that this work was done? (4) how did the proposed approach contribute to the state-of-the-art, i.e., why existing approaches were not adequate? (5) what is the proposed approach and how does it compare to earlier approaches, in other words, what are the contributions of the proposed approach? (6) what are the main strengths and weaknesses of the paper/proposed approach? After summarizing all papers to be covered in lecture, the report should also include a brief compare and contrats commentary of the papers read.

Having a copy of your reports handy in class can help guide your participation.


Students must complete a project for the class. While project ideas will be posted on the class Web page, students are encouraged to propose their own project topics to be evaluated/approved by the instructor. Projects are individual; however, depending on their complexity, projects can involve teams of up to 2 students. 

Students are required to submit a project proposal which will contain the following information: project title; brief motivation and description of related work; proposed approach; experimental methodology; demo plan and/or expected results. Project deliverables include: project report, source code, project presentation/demo.

Here's a list of project ideas. More information on each project can be provided on demand.

. Based on the paper: K. Veenstra and K. Obraczka, “Guiding Sensor-Node Deployment Over 2.5D Terrain”, In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications, 2015, use Kerry’s stand-alone node deployment simulator (available upon request), and implement alternate distributed algorithm (some of them are referenced in the paper) to maximize coverage. Compare the performance of the newly implemented mechanism with Kerry's distributed simlated annealing approach.

. Based on the paper: S. Mansfield, K. Veenstra and K. Obraczka, “TerrainLOS: An Outdoor Propagation Model for Realistic Sensor Network Simulation”, In Proceedings of IEEE Computer Society’s MASCOTS, 2016, extend TerrainLOS to incorporate more realistic channel propagation models. 

. Based on the paper: S. Mansfield, K. Veenstra and K. Obraczka, “TerrainLOS: An Outdoor Propagation Model for Realistic Sensor Network Simulation”, In Proceedings of IEEE Computer Society’s MASCOTS, 2016, improve the algorithm by Wang, Robinson, and White that TerrainLOS uses to compute coverage. 

. Based on the paper: S. Mansfield, K. Veenstra and K. Obraczka, “TerrainLOS: An Outdoor Propagation Model for Realistic Sensor Network Simulation”, In Proceedings of IEEE Computer Society’s MASCOTS, 2016,Port TerrainLOS to ns3. 

Based on the paper: S. Mansfield, K. Veenstra and K. Obraczka, “TerrainLOS: An Outdoor Propagation Model for Realistic Sensor Network Simulation”, In Proceedings of IEEE Computer Society’s MASCOTS, 2016, use  a model for coonectivity over terrain to run experiments in the TerrainLOS paper and see how they match the rersults using actual terrain.

. Clustering in wireless networks: implement clustering that uses distance as its clustering criteria, so that clusters closer to a given node (e.g., gateway, data sink) will be favored than clusters farther away. This project will build upon an implementation on Cooja. Related research papers as well as additional detail on the existing implementation can be provided to the student(s) interested in the project.

. Clustering in wireless networks: extend the original clustering implement to multi-hop wireless scenarios.  The current version of the approximation algorithm used for clustering assumes single hop scenarios.  The project will aim at adapting the proposed algorithm and the one used asa basis for comparison to wireless multi-hop networking environments. Related research papers as well as additional detail on the existing implementation can be provided to the student(s) interested in the project.

Implement IEEE 802.11 PCF in ns-3.

. Mechanism to automatically adjust protocol parameters based on current network conditions:

- Route cache TTL for on-demand routing protocols.

. IEEE 802.11 uses an optional RTS/CTS handshake to combat the hidden node problem. RTS Threshold (RT), which is used to enable and disable the RTS/CTS exchange, is a fixed number based on the packet size. This project's goal is to set the RT value dynamically based on channel congestion. Different metrics can be used to measure channel congestion such as mean access delay, packet delivery ratio, collision probability, status of sender's queue, average length of idle periods, etc. 

SENSE[1] is an efficient machine learning predictor which can be used to estimate channel conditions. In this project, you will use SENSE to estimate contention using any of the metrics suggested above, other than collision probability. Based on this estimate, RTS/CTS will be enabled/disabled. As basis of comparison, you will use the standard approach to setting the value of the RT.

[1] Y. Edalat, J. S. Ahn, and K. Obraczka. “Smart Experts for Network State Estimation.” IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Man- agement 13, no. 3 (2016): 622–635. 


Student Presentations:

Students will present on a topic of their choice. Possible topics include: security in wireless networks, recent architectures and paradigms (DTN, SDN, hybrid networks, IoT, etc). Student presenters need to pick a topic of their interest among the ones suggested. Students can also propose a new topic (need instructor's approval). Once the topic is selected, students will choose 3 papers on the topic to be covered. Selected papers need approval from instructor.

Student presentations must provide a good overview of the topic through the papers selected (they should avoid describing the papers exactly). Presentations should provide insight and critical perspective on the state-of-the-art related to the topic being presented. Class discussion should be encouraged. The day of their presentation, the student does not need to submit a reading report.


lecture 8​

Airborne Networks by Shouqian​

Jan 9 Course overview lecture 1
Jan 11 Introduction lecture 2
Jan 16 Medium Access Control I lecture 3
Jan 18 ns-3 and Cooja/Contiki tutorials

ns-3 tutorial

Cooja/Contiki tutorial

Jan 23 Medium Access Control I & II lecture 4
Jan 25 Medium Access Control II & Unicast Routing I lecture 5
Jan 30 Unicast Routing II lecture 6
Feb 1 Multicast Routing  lecture 7
Feb 6 Wireless Internetworking lecture 8
Feb 8 End-to-End Protocols I lecture 9
Feb 13 End-to-End Protocols II leture 10
Feb 15 End-to-End Protocols III lecture 11
Feb 20 Reliable Multicast lecture 12
Feb 22 Reliable Multicast lecture 13
Feb 27 Exam  
March 1 Mobility Management (Li) Mobility management slides by Li
March 6 DTN (Andrea and Chris)

DTN1 by Andrea

DTN2 by Chris

March 8 IoT (Mariette) IoT by Mariette 
March 13 Security (Bossou)   
March 15  Airborne Networks (Shouqian) Airborne Networks by Shouqian
March 22 Project Presentations  


Reading List:

Timeless readings:

. Saltzer et al., End-to-end Arguments in System Design.

. Lampson, Hints for Computer System Design.

Introduction (Jan 11)

. L. Kleinrock, "Nomadicity: Anytime, Anywhere In A Disconnected World", Invited paper, Mobile Networks and Applications, Vol. 1, No. 4, January 1996, pp. 351-357. 

. L. Kleinrock, "An Internet Vision: The Invisible Global Infrastructure", Ad Hoc Networks Journal, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 3-11, July 2003.

. M Weiser, "The Computer for the 21st Century", 1991. 

. M. Weiser, "Some Computer Science Problems in Ubiquitous Computing", Communications of the ACM, July 1993. 

Medium Access Control I - Contention-Based MAC (Jan 16)

. B. P. Crow and I. Widjaja and L. G. Kim and P. T. Sakai, "IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks", 1997. IEEE Communications Magazine, 35(9):116-126. 

. Vaduvur Bharghavan, Alan Demers, Scott Shenker, Lixia Zhang, "MACAW: A Media Access Protocol for Wireless for Wireless LANs", ACM Sigcomm 94. 

. J. J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves and C. L. Fullmer, "Floor Acquisition Multiple Access in Single-Channel Wireless Networks," ACM MONET Journal, Special Issue on Ad Hoc Networks, Vol. 4, 1999, pp. 157-174. 

Medium Access Control II - Scheduled-Access MAC (Jan 23)

. Venkatesh Rajendran, Katia Obraczka, J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves. "DYNAMMA: A DYNAmic Multi-channel Medium Access Framework for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks", Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor Systems (MASS). Oct 2007. Nominated for the best paper award. 

. V. Rajendran, Katia Obraczka, and J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, "Energy-Efficient, Collision-Free Medium Access Control for Wireless Sensor Networks", ACM/Kluwer Wireless Networks (WINET), 2006.  

. Djukic, P. and Mohapatra, P., "Soft-TDMAC: A Software TDMA-Based MAC over Commodity 802.11 Hardware", Proceedings of the INFOCOM 2009, 2009

MANET Unicast Routing I (Jan 25) 

. Dynamic source routing in ad hoc wireless networks, David B. Johnson, David A. Maltz, in Mobile Computing, editor T. Imielinski and Hank Korth, Kluwer, 1996. 

. An Implementation Study of the AODV Routing Protocol, Elizabeth M. Royer and Charles E. Perkins, Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, Chicago, IL, September 2000.

MANET Unicast Routing II (Jan 30)  

. Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR), RFC 3626.

Samir R. Das, Charles E. Perkins, Elizabeth M. Royer and Mahesh K. Marina. Performance Comparison of Two On-demand Routing Protocols for Ad hoc Networks. IEEE Personal Communications Magazine Special Issue on Ad hoc Networking, February 2001, pp. 16-28.

MANET Multicast Routing (Feb 1) 

Multicast Operation of the Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol. Royer and Perkins, Proceedings of Mobicom, August 1999. 

. On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol. Lee, Gerla and Chiang, Proceedings of WCNC, September 1999. 

OPTIONAL READING: "Robust and Scalable Integrated Routing in MANETs Using Context-Aware Ordered Meshes". Rolando Menchaca-Mendez and J. J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, INFOCOM'10 Proceedings of the 29th conference on Information communications, San Diego, California, USA.

Wireless Internetworking (Feb 6) 

. A Mobile Host Protocol Supporting Route Optimization and Authentication, Andrew Myles, David B. Johnson, Charles Perkins, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, special issue on Mobile and Wireless Computing Networks, 13(5):839-849, June 1995.

. Mobility Support in IPv6 , Charles E. Perkins and David B. Johnson. Proceedings of the Second Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom'96), November 1996.

. FLIP: A Flexible Interconnection Protocol for Heterogeneous Internetworking, Ignacio Solis and Katia Obraczka, in ACM/Kluwer Mobile Networking and Applications (MONET) Special on Integration of Heterogeneous Wireless Technologies.

Optional: TCP Performance in Mobile-IP, Foo Chun Choong.

End-to-End Protocols I: Infrastructure-Based Wireless Networks (Feb 8 and Feb 13) 

. Improving TCP/IP Performance over Wireless Networks, Hari Balakrishnan, Srinivasan Seshan, Elan Amir, Randy H. Katz. Proc. 1st ACM Conf. on Mobile Computing and Networking, Berkeley, CA, November 1995. 

. Delayed duplicate acknowledgements: a TCP-Unaware approach to improve performance of TCP over wireless, Nitin H. Vaidya, Milten N. Mehta, Charles E. Perkins, Gabriel Montenegro. 

. I-TCP: indirect TCP for mobile hosts, 15th Int'l Conf. on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), May 1995. 

 End-to-End Protocols II: MANETs (Feb 15) 

. Analysis of TCP Performance over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, G. Holland and N. H. Vaidya, Fifth Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MOBICOM), Seattle, August 1999.

. A Comparison of TCP Performance over Three Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Thomas Dyer, Rajendra Boppana, Mobihoc 2001.

. Improving TCP Performance over Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks with Out-of-Order Detection and Response, F. Wand and Y. Zhang, Mobihoc 2002. 

Reliable Multipoint Communication I (Feb 20)

 . Reliable Broadcast in Mobile Multihop Packet Networks, E. Pagani and G.P. Rossi, Proceedings of ACM/IEEE MOBICOM'97, Budapest, Hungary, Sep. 1997, pp. 34-42. 

. Anonymous Gossip: Improving Multicast Reliability in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks R. Chandra, V. Ramasubramanian, and K.P. Birman, Proceedings of IEEE ICDCS 2001, Mesa, AZ, Apr. 2001, pp. 275-283.

Reliable Multipoint Communication II (Feb 22)

. Combining Source- and Localized Recovery to Achieve Reliable Multicast in Multi-Hop Ad Hoc Networks, Venkatesh Rajendran, Katia Obraczka, Yunjung Yi, Sung-Ju Lee, Ken Tang and Mario Gerla, Proceedings of the IFIP Networking' 04, May 2004.

. Reliable Adaptive Lightweight Multicast Protocol, Ken Tang, Katia Obraczka, Sung-Ju Lee and Mario Gerla, Proceedings of IEEE ICC 2003, May 2003.

. Optional reading: Ken Tang, Katia Obraczka, Sung-Ju Lee and Mario Gerla, “Congestion Controlled Adaptive Lightweight Multicast in Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, Proceedings of IEEE ISCC, July 2002.

Mobility Management/Support (March 1)

. “Characterizing User Activity in WiFi Networks: University Campus and Urban Area Case Studies“, Larissa M.E. Oliveira, K. Obraczka,  Abel Rodrigues,  19th ACM International Conference on Modeling, Analysis  and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems, Malta, November 13-17th 2016. 

. "Design and Implementation of a Software-Defined Mobility Architecture for IP Networks", You Wang, Jun Bi, Keyao Zhang, Mobile Netw Appl (2015) 20:40–52.

. "Enabling Distributed Mobility Management: A Unified Wireless Network Architecture Based on Virtualized Core Network", Jyotirmoy Banik, Marco Tacca, Andrea Fumagalli, Behcet Sarikaya, Li Xue, 2015 24th International Conference on Computer Communication and Networks (ICCCN).

Delay, Disruption Tolerant Networking (March 6)

"DTN: an architectural retrospective," K. Fall and S. Farrell, in IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 828-836, June 2008.

.  “Congestion Control in Disruption-Tolerant Networks: A Comparative Study for Interplanetary and Terrestrial Networking Applications”, Aloizio P. Silva, Scott Burleigh, Celso M. Hirata, and K. Obraczka, Ad Hoc Networks, Elsevier, 2016 

.  "Alternative custodians for congestion in delay tolerant networks", M. Seligman, K. Fall, P. Mundur, in: SIGCOMM’06 Workshops, 2006. 

. "Probabilistic routing in intermittently connected networks.", Lindgren, Anders, Avri Doria, and Olov Schelen, In Proceedings of the 2004 conference on Applications, technologies, architectures, and protocols for computer communications (SIGCOMM '04).

. "Enhancing Contact Graph Routing for Delay Tolerant Space Networking,",  J. Segui, E. Jennings and S. Burleigh,  2011 IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference - GLOBECOM 2011, Houston, TX, USA, 2011, pp. 1-6.

. "N-Drop: congestion control strategy under epidemic routing in DTN", Yun Li, Ling Zhao, Zhanjun Liu, and Qilie Liu, In Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing: Connecting the World Wirelessly (IWCMC '09). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 457-460.

IoT (March 8)

. "Internet of Things in Industries: A Survey", L. D. Xu, W. He and S. Li, in IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 2233-2243, Nov. 2014. URL

. "PortoLivingLab: an IoT-based Sensing Platform for Smart Cities", P. M. Santos et al., in IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. PP, no. 99, pp. 1-1. URL

. "Internet of Things for Smart Cities", A. Zanella, N. Bui, A. Castellani, L. Vangelista and M. Zorzi, in IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 22-32, Feb. 2014. URL

Security in Wireless Netwoks (March 13)

 .  "Survey of Routing Attacks and Countermeasures in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks", Amara korba Abdelaziz, Mehdi Nafaa and Ghanemi Salim, IEEE 15th International Conference on Computer Modelling and Simulation, 2013.

. "Detection of Cooperative Black Hole Attack using Crosschecking with TrueLink in MANET", Gayatri Wahane, Ashok M. Kanthe and Dina Simunic, IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research, 2014.

. "Rushing Attacks and Defense in Wireless Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols", Yih-Chun Hu, Adrian Perrig and David B. Johnson, Proceedings of WiSe '03 Proceedings of the 2nd ACM workshop on Wireless security, 2003.

Airborne Networks (March 15)

"Survey of Important Issues in UAV Communication Networks". Gupta, L., Jain, R., & Vaszkun, G. (2016). IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, 18(2), 1123–1152.  URL

. "A Survey and Analysis of Mobility Models for Airborne Networks". Xie, J., Member, S., Wan, Y., Kim, J. H., & Member, S. (2014). IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 16(3), 1221–1238.  URL

. "Greedy Routing by Network Distance Embedding". Qian, C., & Lam, S. S. (2016). IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 24(4), 2100–2113. URL